Saturday, March 14, 2020
The Benefits of Paper Recycling Paper recycling has been around for a long time. Actually, when you think about it, paper has been a recycled product from the very beginning. For the first 1,800 years or so that paper existed, it was always made from discarded materials. What Are the Most Significant Benefits of Paper Recycling? Recycling paper conserves natural resources, saves energy, reduces greenhouse gas emissions, and keeps landfill space free for other types of trash that cant be recycled. Recycling one ton of paper can save 17 trees, 7,000 gallons of water, 380 gallons of oil, 3.3 cubic yards of landfill space and 4,000 kilowatts of energy - enough to power the average U.S. home for six months - and reduce greenhouse gas emissions by one metric ton of carbon equivalent (MTCE). Who Invented Paper? A Chinese official named Tsai Lun was the first person to make what we would consider paper. In 105 AD, at Lei-Yang, China, Tsai Lun stirred together a combination of rags, used fishing nets, hemp and grass to make the first real paper the world had ever seen. Before Tsai Lun invented paper, people wrote on papyrus, a natural reed used by ancient Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans to create the paper-like material from which paper derives its name. Those first sheets of paper Tsai Lun made were pretty rough, but over the next few centuries, as papermaking spread throughout Europe, Asia, and the Middle East, the process improved and so did the quality of the paper produced. When Did Paper Recycling Begin? Papermaking and producing paper from recycled materials came to the United States simultaneously in 1690. William Rittenhouse learned to make paper in Germany and founded Americas first paper mill on Monoshone Creek near Germantown, which is now Philadelphia. Rittenhouse made his paper from discarded rags of cotton and linen. It wasnt until the 1800s that people in the United States started making paper from trees and wood fiber. On April 28, 1800, an English papermaker named Matthias Koops was granted the first patent for paper recycling - English patent no. 2392, titled Extracting Ink from Paper and Converting such Paper into Pulp. In his patent application, Koops described his process as, An invention made by me of extracting printing and writing ink from printed and written paper, and converting the paper from which the ink is extracted into pulp, and making thereof paper fit for writing, printing, and other purposes. In 1801, Koops opened a mill in England that was the first in the world to produce paper from material other than cotton and linen rags - specifically from recycled paper. Two years later, the Koops mill declared bankruptcy and closed, but Koops patented paper-recycling process was later used by paper mills all over the world. Municipal paper recycling started in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1874, as part of the nations first curbside recycling program. And in 1896, the first recycling center opened in New York City. From those early efforts, paper recycling has continued to grow until, today, more paper is recycled (if measured by weight) than all of the glass, plastic, and aluminum combined. How Much Paper Is Recycled Every Year? In 2014, 65.4 percent of the paper used in the United States was recovered for recycling, for a total of 51 million tons. Thats a 90 percent increase in the recovery rate since 1990, according to the American Forest Paper Association. Approximately 80 percent of U.S. paper mills use some recovered paper fiber to produce new paper and paperboard products. How Many Times Can the Same Paper Be Recycled? Paper recycling does have limits. Every time paper is recycled, the fiber becomes shorter, weaker and more brittle. In general, paper can be recycled up to seven times before it must be discarded. Edited by Frederic Beaudry
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
Motivation and Performance in Washburn Guitars - Case Study Example The employees at Washburn guitars feel motivated because of their love for the music and the care they have when making the musical instruments. Their unending love for the music inspires these workers and makes them possess a sense of belonging to their needs. These employees have an internal motivation and out of love for the music and art, they feel as if they possess an intrinsic reward, which makes them make a complete set of a guitar. According to Moran (2013), their great passion for their music and art-related jobs make them feel to have achieved their objectives in life and hence they make the finest quality guitars that search best prices in the market. The love and connection for their labor they had with every instrument make them take production to the highest possible level. Most people have greatly credited the production manager at Washburn guitars for the motivational cultures that he established in this firm. The employees at Washburn for a long time have preferred to make d10s guitars, which have been the top-selling musical instrument in the history of this firm. Many music artists term the guitar as durable and have the highest quality and it is very affordable such that even the upcoming artists are able to acquire it. Most clients of the instrument have claimed that the guitar produces the highest quality sound and has the most admired aesthetic features in comparison with the guitars from other firms. The top musicians in the world have preferred to use this guitar from Washburn due to its consistency and this has created an extrinsic motivation for the workers at the firm (Moran, 2013).
Monday, February 10, 2020
Focus on Society - Essay Example The point that needs to be taken into consideration is that no other art form is so fervently associated with economics and business as films. So, by necessity a film has to retain a delicate balance between expressing social realities so that the viewers may relate to it, while at the same time being artistically creative and involving, thereby addressing the commercial constraints and expectations (Curran, 1998). Cinema is an art form with a very large scope, canvass and budget. Yet, it is also a medium endowed with a greater responsibility towards society as compared to other art forms. So films do get influenced by the social context in which they are created, though the vivid blend of imagination, reality, glamour, intensity and conflict presented in them never fails to directly or indirectly influence the viewers in varying proportions (Hayward, 2000). It will be really relevant to talk about the 1994 comedy-drama Forrest Gump. The film, revolving around the life of a simpleton from Alabama, Forrest Gump, in a way presents the important social, popular and historical issues and events of the 20th century America. Yet, the film did not portray the American history with the simplicity of a school textbook.
Thursday, January 30, 2020
Symbolism Used in James Joyces Dubliners Essay Symbolism is a powerful tool used by people every day to force people to look past the obvious and find the deeper meaning. Symbolism is used by authors, musicians, priests, and many others. James Joyce, a well-known Irish author, uses symbolism repeatedly throughout his collection of short stories published in 1916. In these stories, titled Dubliners, Joyce uses symbolism not only to enhance the stories, but to also show the hidden, underlying message of each story without coming out and saying it directly. JoyceÃ¢â¬â¢s stories are centered on the problems of Dublin and through his use of symbolism Joyce is able to focus attention on what problem each story is addressing. James Joyce, author of Dubliners, uses symbolism effectively to enhance the stories. The first story in Dubliners deals with the problems of the Catholic Church. Ã¢â¬Å"The SistersÃ¢â¬ is about a priest, Father Flynn, who goes crazy because of the incredible stress placed on him by the rule-centered church. A note publicly announcing the priestÃ¢â¬â¢s death read Ã¢â¬Å"July 1st, 1895 The Rev. James Flynn (Formerly of S. CatherineÃ¢â¬â¢s Church, Meath Street), aged sixty-five years. R. I. P. Ã¢â¬ (Joyce 4). Joyce associates Father Flynn with S. CatherineÃ¢â¬â¢s Church because St. Catherine was torn apart physically and Father Flynn was torn apart mentally, because of the rules and strict guidelines he was expected to uphold. Making this connection enhances the story because it shows the reader that if the priest canÃ¢â¬â¢t handle the rules placed on him by the church, how was an average person supposed to. The date is also symbolic because July 1st is The Feast of the Most Precious Blood of Christ. The breaking of the chalice during Mass was the cause of his death. Fr. FlynnÃ¢â¬â¢s sister said Ã¢â¬Å"It was that chalice he broke. That was the beginning of itÃ¢â¬ ¦That affected his mindÃ¢â¬ (9-10). At his wake the priest his holding the chalice in his hands, which symbolized the evil church was the cause of this manÃ¢â¬â¢s death and reiterating the main theme of the story. Ã¢â¬Å"An EncounterÃ¢â¬ is the next story and its major theme is appearance versus reality, meaning things are not always what they seem. The story is about a few boyÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to play hooky from school in order to have an adventure. The boys meet an old man who is nice on the outside, but is actually very evil. Just before the boys come across the old man on their adventure Ã¢â¬Å"the sun went in behind some cloudsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (16). The sunny, innocent day turns dark symbolizing that something bad is about to happen. Joyce uses the weather in many of his stories to foreshadow events that are about to happen. This technique adds to the stories because it helps the reader know that something is about to happen and as a result they pay closer attention to what it is that Joyce is referring to. When the boys meet the old man he was Ã¢â¬Å"dressed in a suit of greenish-blackÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (16) and had a Ã¢â¬Å"pair of bottle-green eyesÃ¢â¬ (19). Green is the color of Ireland and Joyce associates it with evil. By making a connection between the color of Ireland and the evil old pedophile, Joyce is really associating the evilness with all of Ireland, which is the major theme of Dubliners. Joyce is very good at giving hints about certain characters. For example, when the boys were talking with the pedophile they noticed Ã¢â¬Å"he had great gaps in his mouth between his yellow teethÃ¢â¬ (17) and being gap toothed symbolized someone who was sexually promiscuous. Techniques used by Joyce, changing the weather and the man being gap-toothed, all enhance the stories because they provide hidden information that brings to light the themes of each story. In the next story, Ã¢â¬Å"ArabyÃ¢â¬ , the major theme is infatuation versus love. Joyce begins the story by informing his readers that Ã¢â¬Å"North Richmond Street, being blindÃ¢â¬ (21) was the street the boyÃ¢â¬â¢s school was on. The term Ã¢â¬ËblindÃ¢â¬â¢ is referring to the street, meaning it was a dead-end street, but it also has a different, deeper meaning. Joyce uses the word to also describe the boyÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings towards a girl and to his dead-end relationship with the girl he is infatuated with. From the opening sentence Joyce gives his readers and idea of what to expect from his stories. Examining the term gives a deeper meaning that enhances the story. At the boyÃ¢â¬â¢s home, Ã¢â¬Å"The wild garden behind the house contained a central apple tree and aÃ¢â¬ ¦rusty bicycle pumpÃ¢â¬ (21). The apple-tree symbolizes Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden, self-deception followed by self-knowledge. The bicycle pump symbolizes the kidÃ¢â¬â¢s pumped up, full of hot air, fascination with the girl and then being deflated. The apple tree and bicycle pump are clues to the outcome of the story. The boy also discovers three important and symbolic books in his house. The Abbot is about the worship of a special lady, The Devout Communicant is about worship and The Memoirs of Vidocq is a detective story that usually ends with the truth being revealed. All three stories are hinting at what will happen to the boy at the end of the story. The boy goes to Araby, a market of goods from all over the world, to buy the girl a gift in order to prove his love to her, but when he finally gets there the marketÃ¢â¬â¢s closing in ten minutes. The boy Ã¢â¬Å"heard a voice call from one end of the gallery that the light was outÃ¢â¬ (27). Joyce frequently uses light to symbolize an epiphany or realization. In this case, the boy realizes the girl does not really have feelings for him as he had convinced himself to believe. The light provides the reader with the moment the boy finally realizes he was Ã¢â¬Å"a creature driven and derided by vanityÃ¢â¬ (28). The light is the changing from self-deception to self-knowledge. Ã¢â¬Å"EvelineÃ¢â¬ is the story of a girl who is torn between leaving to start a new life and staying in Dublin with her father. In her home was a Ã¢â¬Å"broken harmoniumÃ¢â¬ (30), which is used by Joyce to symbolize there is no harmony in EvelineÃ¢â¬â¢s home because of her drunken, abusive father. A photograph of a priest Ã¢â¬Å"hung on the wall above the broken harmoniumÃ¢â¬ (30). Whenever Eveline would ask her father about him he used to say, Ã¢â¬Å"He is in Melbourne nowÃ¢â¬ (30). The priest is symbolic because he was able to do what Eveline canÃ¢â¬â¢t, escape Ireland. While waiting for the man she is leaving with Eveline Ã¢â¬Å"could hear a street organ playingÃ¢â¬ ¦remind her of the promise to her mother, her promise to keep the home together as long as she couldÃ¢â¬ (30-31). The organ playing reminds Eveline of her mother and she does not want Ã¢â¬Å"that life of commonplace sacrifices closing in final crazinessÃ¢â¬ (31). She knows that she must escape with Frank, but when it comes time to get on the boat Ã¢â¬Å"she gripped both hands at the iron railingÃ¢â¬ (34). The symbolism of Eveline holding on the metal bars paints a clear picture of someone in jail; trapped in Ireland. Next is the story, titled Ã¢â¬Å"Two GallantsÃ¢â¬ , of two arrogant men who have no respect for women and only use them as a means to their happiness. Joyce uses symbolism in the story to talk about the poor treatment of Ireland and also the poor treatment of these girls by the two men, Corley and Lenehan. Before the two men met up with the innocent girl the weather changed from a nice day to cloudy, symbolic of something bad that is about to take place. At one point during the story when the men were walking down the road Ã¢â¬Å"a harpist stood in the roadway, playing to a little ring of listenersÃ¢â¬ ¦His harp too, heedless that her coverings had fallen about her knees, seemed weary alike of the eyes of strangers and of her masters handsÃ¢â¬ (48). The harp is symbol associated by the people of Ireland with their country. The term Ã¢â¬ËstrangersÃ¢â¬â¢ was a code word used by the Irish for the British. The quote is making reference to the rape of the harp by saying it was Ã¢â¬Å"unaware that her coverings had fallen about her kneesÃ¢â¬ (48). Joyce is talking about the rape of Ireland by the British, but he is also describing the girls being played, like the harp, by Corley and Lenehan. The symbolism connected with the harp helps uncover JoyceÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings towards Britain and the many men of Ireland who act as Corley and Lenehan do. Without the symbolism of the harp we would have never known about JoyceÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings towards these important topics. The title, Ã¢â¬Å"Two GallantsÃ¢â¬ , is also important. The term gallant means to be brave, courteous, and chivalrous, but in the story Corley and Lenehan donÃ¢â¬â¢t act as two gallants should. Joyce does this on purpose because most men of Dublin act as Corley and Lenehan do, and Joyce wants us to know that these two men, and the men of Dublin, did not treat women with respect, as one should. Ã¢â¬Å"Ivy Day In the Committee RoomÃ¢â¬ deals with Irish politics. Ivy is an evergreen and symbolizes loyalty to Ireland and loyalty to the ideas of Parnell. The poem read by Joe Henchy at the end of the story, titled Ã¢â¬Å"The Death of ParnellÃ¢â¬ (131), makes the connection to what the title is referring to. In the poem, Parnell is described as IrelandÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Uncrowned KingÃ¢â¬ (131). It goes on to read Ã¢â¬Å"Shame on the coward caitiff hands/ That smote their Lord of with a kiss/ Betrayed him to the rabble-rout/ Of fawning priests Ã¢â¬â no friends of hisÃ¢â¬ (132). That part of the poem is talking about how Parnell was thrown out by his own people. By saying the people Ã¢â¬Å"smote their Lord with a kissÃ¢â¬ (132), the poem is making a clear connection between the people of Ireland and Judas, the betrayer of Jesus. The title, Ã¢â¬Å"Ivy Day In the Committee RoomÃ¢â¬ , is describing the loyalty to Ireland, and Parnell, by a few remaining people. The title gives a clue to what the story is about, but itÃ¢â¬â¢s not until the end when Joe Henchy reads his poem that we know exactly what the title is referring to. Both the title and the poem take the short story from being good to great. The symbolism used in the title is reveled at the end and again shows JoyceÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings toward the Irish, in this case the government. The poem enhances the story because its not until the poem is read that we become aware of what the title is actually referring to. ClayÃ¢â¬ is a sad story about a woman, Maria, who is old and unattractive. It is Hallows Eve and everyone is participating in games. One of the games played involves being blindfolded and led up to a table with four saucers. The saucerÃ¢â¬â¢s contained a prayer book, a ring, water, or clay and symbolized something that was to happen in the future. The prayer book meant a life of the church, a ring symbolized marriage, water represented a voyage or journey and clay was symbolic of death. When it was MariaÃ¢â¬â¢s turn, she symbolically picked clay. Joyce writes, Ã¢â¬Å"She felt a soft wet substance with her fingers and was surprised that nobody spoke or took off her bandageÃ¢â¬ (101). The clay symbolizes death and so Ã¢â¬Å"Maria understood that it was wrong that time and so she had to do it over again: and this time she got the prayer bookÃ¢â¬ (101). Because the clay symbolized death and the prayer book symbolized a life in the church, Maria was to live the remaining years of her life with nobody and eventually die alone. The title enhances the story because at first it is unclear what clay actually means, but at the end of the story it all comes together. At the end of the story Maria is singing Ã¢â¬Å"I Dreamt that I Dwelt, and when she came to the second verse she sang againÃ¢â¬ (102) the first verse. Maria unconsciously skipping the second verse of the song symbolizes her life of loneliness and shows that she has given up on dreaming about love. Maria has accepted her fate and no longer believes that maybe someday she will find love. In conclusion, Dubliners was written by James Joyce to show the problems with Dublin. Joyce uses symbolism to illuminate the themes of the story. Throughout the stories the symbolism helps explain and reinforce the themes of each story.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
Alcohol use and behaviors in women long-distance race participants reporting a history of bulimia and/ or anorexia nervosa Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã women long-distance racers were more likely to report a past history of an eating disorder than the control population and that reported in the general population. We cannot say that running was responsible for the development of the eating disorder. It may be that running can prevent or control eating disorders. High achieving, disciplined, organized women with a history of an eating disorder may be attracted to long-distance running. The method of defining a case was based simply on the respondent replying affirmatively to the questions Ã¢â¬Å"Do you have a history or bulimia/Ã¢â¬ and/or Ã¢â¬Å"Do you have a history of anorexia nervosa?Ã¢â¬ This method of case definition is based on a history of such a disorder and does not necessarily reflect an active problem. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Researchers found that women reporting a past history of bulimia and a history of problem alcohol behavior as noted by other investigators and were more likely to report a biologic family member with a history of problem drinking. Even with their history of problem alcohol behavior, the runners reporting a history of bulimia did not differ from other runners or the control population in their drinking patterns in a recent two-week period. Total amount of alcohol consumed, occasions of drinking and occasions of binge drinking were not significantly different among any of the women. Researchers were unable to ascertain if running helped control alcohol consumption in a person prone to problem alcohol consumption in a person prone to problem alcohol behavior or if the decreased alcohol consumption predated the onset of running. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Those women reporting a past history of a mixed type of eating disorder, perhaps reflecting severity, ran more days of the week and more miles per week than other runners. These women also had the lowest weight and desired weight of any group. The drive for thinness is a hallmark of anorexia but anorexics with bulimia generally are more prone to use vomiting and/or laxatives for weight control than intense exercise or severe food restriction. This subtype of anorexia is also more likely to be prone of problems with alcohol. This was not true for the women in this study. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã A limitation of the study is the small numbers in the eating disorder groups. With a larger series of cases, the small differences in alcohol consumption could be significant.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
After analyzing Ã¢â¬ËLose YourselfÃ¢â¬â¢ by Eminem, IÃ¢â¬â¢ve understood EminemÃ¢â¬â¢s emotion in this song. He raps about taking a chance at success and being able to take it without anyone stopping him. He also refers to the movie 8 mile, where he failed his first chance and knew that his second opportunity he had to succeed. Analyzing the lyrics, with all the expression he has on him heÃ¢â¬â¢s starting to lose his desire and momentum of being an artist. At one point he says Ã¢â¬Å"A normal life is boring, but super stardomÃ¢â¬â¢s close to post mortemÃ¢â¬ which means that having a normal life is boring, but being a superstar is almost being dead. Eminem feels like being a superstar is a lot of pressure and the expectation levels are very high because you need to keep producing content that is bigger and better which he said in this sentence Ã¢â¬Å"It only grows harder, only grows hotterÃ¢â¬ . HeÃ¢â¬â¢s been through tough times in his career and tries his best to gain respect from other rappers in the industry. My final thoughts on this analysis would be that this song is about his tough times and what he goes through in his career and he truly does a great job expressing it in Ã¢â¬ËLose YourselfÃ¢â¬â¢. Everyone in life goes through tough situations and I can reflect on this when it comes to school grades. As I explained in the following paragraph Ã¢â¬Å"It only grows harder, only grows hotterÃ¢â¬ means you have to produce better content for better results is something I can reflect on. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s never easy to get good marks; you always need to put in motivation and dedication to succeed. You need to put in better work and effort to get the results you want which is why EminemÃ¢â¬â¢s verse in this song reflects me. Overall though, I must say this is one of my favorite songs of all time and it was very interesting to analyze EminemÃ¢â¬â¢s lyrics.
Monday, January 6, 2020
Economics The German economy is the largest in Europe and worldwide Germany has the fifth largest economy (Ã¢â¬Å"World fact bookÃ¢â¬ , n.d.). It is clear that the German economy holds a key position in the world marketplace. Gross domestic product (GDP) growth is an important consideration for foreign investment as it speaks to the overall health of an economy. GDP growth can be attributed to spending and investments both on and from imports and exports (Ã¢â¬Å"What is GDPÃ¢â¬ , 2005). In 2014 the reported GDP growth rate in Germany was 1.4%, up .9 % from the prior year (Ã¢â¬Å"World fact bookÃ¢â¬ n.d.). The Eurozone was deeply affected by a recession stemming from the US and made worse by poor economic conditions in Greece and Spain, among other countries inÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In 2014 trade as share of GDP was 70.8 percent, down less than three percent from the two years prior (Ã¢â¬Å"Merchandise tradeÃ¢â¬ , n.d.). This is one of those areas in which only time will tell whether Germany will continue to prosper and be the financial backbone of the Eurozone. GDP per capita is also an important indicator of economic health. GDP per capita takes the total output of a country and divides it by the number of people in a countries population; this indicated the buying power of individuals. GDP per capita in Germany as reported for 2014 was slightly over 47,000 USD (Ã¢â¬Å"Countries with the largestÃ¢â¬ , n.d.). Looking at GDP per capita when compared to other countries in the Eurozone Germany is not fairing so well. Luxembourg leads the world wide GDP per capita and that of the Eurozone with a high rate of 116,750 USD (Ã¢â¬Å"Countries with the largestÃ¢â¬ , n.d.). Worldwide Germany ranks 16th in the Eurozone, Germany was beat out by Austria, Finland, Ireland, Luxembourg and the Netherlands in GDP per capita (Ã¢â¬Å"Countries with the largestÃ¢â¬ , n.d.). While the GDP per capita rate in Germany is stronger than many other countries it is not competitive with other countries which have economies comparable in size to Germany nor e conomies centrally located in the Eurozone. A low inflation rate averaging .91 percent for 2014 should help to increase purchases in Germany. This is because consumers can get more for the